The 5thKubuqi International Desert Forum (KIDF) held on July 28-29, 2015 in Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia, China, was attended by about 300 participants who were committed to desertification control and ecological restoration. These included officials from the United Nations (UN) system and related international organizations, and governments, as well as experts and scholars, entrepreneurs, and representatives from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The participants, following extensive and indepth discussions under the theme of Desert Ecological Civilization and Co-building Silk Roads, unanimously agreed to formulate a Post-2015 Ecological Civilization Construction–Vision and Cooperation Framework as a major result of the Forum. The result document will provide a ten-year framework for voluntary participation of scientists, entrepreneurs, artists, and NGOs in the cooperation towards ecological civilization with a focus on the field of ecological restoration and desertification control, contributing to the implementation of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
I. From Sustainable Development to the Vision of Ecological Civilization Construction
1. Ever since the industrial revolution, especially in the process of recent economic globalization, the global resource as well as ecological and environmental situation as a whole has been exacerbated with the increasing expansion of ecological footprint of human activities. A wide range of global environmental crises, represented by climate change, forest destruction, land degradation and desertification, air and water pollution, and biodiversity loss, have intensified. In the new century, the international community has stepped up efforts and made positive progress in certain global and regional environmental problems, whereas in most cases, the advance or improvement is slow. Global environmental issues have emerged as a key variable posing a serious threat to the survival, health, safety, and sustainability of the mankind.
2. The severe environmental crisis has awakened the environmental awareness. In 1972, the 1st United Nations Conference on Human Environment was convened, ushering in the international exploration and search for solutions to environmental problems and programmes to promote sustainable development. In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) introduced the concept of sustainable development. In 2000, the United Nations outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) and in 2002, the Earth Summit adopted the plan of action for sustainable development. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) launched, in 2012, the process of developing the Post-2015 Development Agenda and a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These efforts conjure up the vision of a better future for our planet, embody the commitment of the international community to sustainable development, and imply that addressing the environmental issues is a long, arduous and complex endeavor.
3. At present, the international community is about to reach a consensus on SDGs and expected to conclude a General Assembly resolution in September, 2015. The sacred mission and common vision is, built on the unfinished MDGs agenda, to achieve sustainable development of the world, particularly in developing countries, through the elimination of extreme poverty, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and sustainable and inclusive economic growth. To this end, the joint action of the international community is favored. Governments should mobilize knowledge, financial and technical resources and strengthen cooperation; NGOs and the private sector are needed for extensive and substantive involvement. The innovative models of development and avenues of cooperation will need to be built up as well to further strengthen the implementation and enforcement capacity.
4. It is noted that many environmental problems familiar to the developed countries also currently confront the developing countries. In most cases, the fast economic growth is indeed accompanied by high environmental costs. Due to resource endowments, development approaches, and the latecomer catch-up strategy, many countries are running out of ecological and environmental resources and enlarging the ecological footprint in the process of industrialization, urbanization, and integration into the global economy. As a result, environmental problems which occurred in the hundred-year process of industrialization now break out within a few decades in many emerging economies and tend to have compact, complex, structural features. The remedy requires a comprehensive initiative and measures.
5. It is encouraging to note that many countries have clearly realized the overdraft-based economic growth is neither sustainable nor affordable and began to seek green development paths. China, for example, has endeavored to make a green transition ever since 2000 through the implementation of systemic strategies and a series of practical actions. In particular, in 2012 the Chinese Government established the “five-in-one” overall strategic layout by incorporating ecological civilization into all aspects and the whole process of economic, political, cultural and social progress. It strives to build a beautiful country and achieve sustainable development of the Chinese nation. This reflects the firm political determination of the Chinese Government to solve the serious environmental problems and meet the public expectations for a favorable ecological environment. The layout depicts the design and working plan for restoring a decent environment, promoting harmony between man and nature, and sustaining national development.
6. The concept of ecological civilization put forward by China is neither an abstract mystery of philosophy nor a political ideology. Instead, it encompasses institutional arrangements for governance improvement and sustainable development. The essence of ecological civilization is to build a resource-saving and environment-friendly society with sustainable development based on environmental carrying capacity in accordance with the law of nature in the pursuit of harmony between man and nature and between man and man. The initiative is aimed at reversing the trend of ecological deterioration from the source and restoring “clean water and green mountains”, in a bid to create a favorable working and living environment for the people and contribute the share to global ecological security. To achieve the aim, China has incorporated ecological civilization into all aspects and the whole process of economic, political, cultural and social progress, and facilitated synergies while advancing the new-type industrialization, urbanization, information technology, agricultural modernization and greenization. China focuses efforts on green, circular, and low-carbon development and sets out four tasks: improving development pattern of geographical space, promoting all-around resource conservation, intensifying protection of the ecosystem and the environment, and enhancing institutional development to promote ecological progress.
7. The construction of ecological civilization in China involves five important aspects and key links, specifically: a) recognizing ecological values to create a new social fashion and lay a solid social foundation for ecological civilization; b) enhancing institutional construction with a focus on removing institutional constraints and barriers, to build a complete and integrated system for ecological civilization; c) promoting green way of production for a substantially green economy while accelerating the development of green industries; d) promoting green way of life, and adopting economical, green, low-carbon, civilized and healthy lifestyles and consumption patterns; e)promoting ecological civilization with a global focus, and making a positive contribution to global ecological security and sustainable development.
8. The concept of ecological civilization is a significant achievement made by the Chinese Government in its continuous exploration of development paths and models suited to its own national conditions in the international process of sustainable development. Ecological values embodied in ecological civilization are inherently common and consistent with international green thinking including sustainable development. In 2013, the 27th Session of the Governing Council of United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) incorporated the concept of ecological civilization into the resolution (Decision 27/8). In 2014, at the 1st United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNEA), China’s ecological civilization strategy and the actions and achievements received once again widespread praise from the environment ministers of many countries. There is a reason to believe and expect that the theory and practices of ecological civilization in China can make a unique contribution and provide inspiration to global sustainable development, becoming a world language, universal values, and global consensus.
9. Against the backdrop of an upcoming global consensus on SDGs, the Chinese Government has launched the vision and actions on the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road (the Belt and Road), made a pledge of USD 40 billion for the Silk Road Fund, and initiated the establishment of the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). This series of initiatives creates an excellent opportunity for win-win cooperation among countries along the Belt and Road in the field of green development, eco-environmental protection, desertification control, and clean energy. It manifests an important contribution of China’s ecological process to post-2015 global sustainable development.
10. Launched in 2007, the Kubuqi International Desert Forum (KIDF) is the world’s only platform committed to sharing the value of the desert and promoting ecological restoration and desertification control. It has developed into an important platform for achieving global objectives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). As a commitment to UNCCD, the Chinese Government has approved KIDF as an institutionalized large-scale international forum which offers a unique and high level platform for public-private partnership (PPP) in the combat against desertification, ecological restoration, and development of green economy. KIDF is expected to play a more significant and active role in post-2015 non-governmental cooperation by creating a non-governmental interaction channel and providing an effective platform for international cooperation on green development, especially among countries along the Belt and Road and African nations.
11. The Forum holds that the construction of ecological civilization requires the joint action by all stakeholders and necessitates a wide range of cooperation at international, regional, national and local levels in the world, so that ecological civilization can be cobuilt, shared and win-win. It therefore recommends, with the aid of KIDF, developing a guiding framework document for long-term cooperation on post-2015 ecological process among interested parties. The framework is designed to, by leveraging market mechanisms and commercial forces, mobilize NGOs and businesses, and lead and integrate all resources to focally address air, soil, water, and biological pollution. The framework will start from desertification prevention and control as well as ecological protection to push ahead ecological construction progress and global sustainable development.
II. Goal of Cooperation
12. This document outlines a ten-year framework of non-governmental cooperation in eco-related fields, such as desertification control and climate change, by interested scientists, entrepreneurs, artists, as well as personnel engaged in ecological management, decision-making and planning from countries, international organizations and institutions concerned. It is intended to explore innovative market mechanisms and business models, such as public-private partnership (PPP), to facilitate the post-2015 development and implementation of policies and action plans in green development, eco-environmental protection, desertification control, and clean energy, and expedite the ecological progress.
III. Principles of Cooperation
13. NGO cooperation: The initiative is designed to, while giving play to the role of governments, call on and mobilize advantages, resources and strengths of NGOs, businesses, scientists, artists, and policy researchers that are concerned about environmental protection, desertification control, and green development, and to build third-party environment governance and public-private partnership (PPP) as an effective complement to the existing bilateral and multilateral intergovernmental cooperation in building ecological civilization.
14. Openness and voluntariness: In the spirit of openness and inclusiveness, partners make voluntary commitments to responsibilities and obligations. In addition to countries and regions around the world, international organizations, NGOs, and businesses committed to ecological protection, desertification control, clean energy, and green development are also welcomed to the partnership, so that the fruits of cooperation can benefit a wider area.
15. Equality and transparency: Under this framework of cooperation, the participating members should impartially create and share opportunities through equal consultations. Meanwhile, the decision-making process, mechanisms, and related information should be transparent and open; the parties to cooperation should jointly select projects and discuss and formulate relevant strategies and decisions.
16. Mutual benefit and win-win approach: The framework for cooperation accommodates the interests and concerns of all involved parties, and seeks a convergence of interests and the “maximum common denominator” for cooperation, so as to give full play to the wisdom and creativity, strengths and potentials of all parties to achieve win-win outcomes in eco-system protection and commercial development.
17. Complementary approach: This framework should be undertaken on the basis of all efforts made by UN agencies, governments, and major international and regional initiatives in close cooperation with all concerned bodies. IV. Major Fields of Cooperation
18. Field 1: Ecological Restoration
Target result: supporting the implementation of national and regional ecological restoration along the Belt and Road through promotion of successful models (such as the Kubuqi Model) and maintenance of desert oasis, in an effort to achieve the target of the “neutrality of land degradation” by 2030.
This field includes priorities such as desertification control, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and wise use of wetlands. See the annex for details.
19. Field 2: Environmental Protection
Target result: pushing ahead environmental pollution prevention and control in countries and regions along the Belt and Road, including the protection of soil and water resources and the prevention of air pollution, so as to mitigate climate change and improve climate change adaptability.
This field includes priorities such as prevention and control of environmental pollution, climate change mitigation and adaptation, water resources conservation, and strengthening Protected Area systems. See the annex for details.
20. Field 3: Green Growth
Target result: boosting green economic growth in countries and regions along the Belt and Road by expanding and increasing green investment, green trade, and green jobs.
This field includes priorities such as green investment, green trade, and green jobs. See the annex for details.
21. Field 4: Knowledge Sharing
Target result: enhancing the awareness of ecological civilization, green development, ecological protection, desertification control, and climate change in countries and regions along the Belt and Road, and expanding sharing and dissemination of knowledge and best practices for common development and prosperity.
This field includes priorities such as dissemination of the concept of ecological civilization and best practices, and enhancement of dialogue and exchanges. See the annex for details.
22. Field 5: Capacity Building
Target result: building up the human capital, technological innovation, and institutional capacities of countries and regions along the Belt and Road in ecological civilization construction, green development, and desertification control.
This field includes priorities such as capacity development in human capital, ecological technology innovation, and institutional development. See the annex for details.
V. Models of Cooperation
23. Public-private partnership (PPP) is an effective model of cooperation and a mechanism to ensure win-win cooperation of parties involved in the construction of ecological civilization for the purpose of practical results. This approach gives full play to the advantages of governments, businesses and social organizations through interaction and cooperation, and integrates strengths and resources of different levels to form a powerful force. Non-governmental cooperation is an effective complement to governmental cooperation in the construction of ecological civilization. Under the platform and framework for governmental cooperation, governments play a role in encouraging non-governmental parties to carry out substantive cooperation projects.
24. Against the backdrop of post-2015 SDGs, the construction of ecological civilization, as a specific strategy and practice of developing countries to achieve sustainable development, needs the support of the developed countries, particularly official development assistance (ODA). It also requires mutual assistance, support, and reference by developing countries themselves. It is therefore necessary to promote south-south cooperation and third-party cooperation. Public-private partnerships, southsouth cooperation and non-governmental cooperation advocated by this framework can serve as catalyst and bridgehead for intergovernmental cooperation.
VI. Resource Mobilization
25. The Forum recognized that, to achieve cooperation on ecological civilization, the effective mobilization of resources from all aspects is required, particularly from civil and social resources. Innovation for expansion of financial channels and effective use of funds are both required, while the government should play its due role.
26. The Forum advocated mobilizing funds through different ways and channels, including:
(i) Under the guidance of the Silk Road Fund and sovereign funds of interested
countries, encouraging commercial equity investment fund and private funds to participate in the construction of green silk roads. For example, the Green Silk Road Equity Fund jointly initiated by eight Chinese industrial and commercial enterprises is committed to the construction of ecological civilization, including ecological public welfare activities, eco-industrial investment, and ecological cultural dissemination.
(ii) Developing market mechanisms and business models with a focus on ecosystem-based market and business opportunities, so as to achieve synergies in ecological protection, green growth, and poverty reduction.
(iii) Governments should encourage private investment and cooperation with government departments, and create favorable policy space to attract business investment in green sectors to achieve green growth.
(iv) Leveraging inputs from international organizations and financial facilities. Through bidding and other means, seeking the support of international organizations and project funds, such as the World Bank, UN agencies, international environmental organizations, and the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
(v) Seeking financial support from the government. Financial support from national governments can be built into a seed fund that encourages and stimulates enterprises to expand green investment. Interested governments are encouraged to incorporate the construction of ecological civilization, such as desertification control and ecological reparation, into the Belt and Road initiative.
VII. Follow-up Action Plan
27. The Forum urged the KIDF Secretariat to further study the programmes and operating mechanisms under this cooperation framework. The KIDF Secretariat is requested to maintain close contact with all relevant parties, push ahead substantive cooperation, on a voluntary basis, in the fields identified under the framework, and on a regular basis, report the progress and achievements.
28. The Forum called upon the UNCCD Secretariat, UNEP, and other UN agencies to promote and discuss this framework of cooperation at related councils and forums, as a contribution to the implementation of the post-2015 development agenda and Sustainable Development Goals.
29. The Forum requested the participants to do their best to attract more international attention and participation of civil society organizations through wide publicity and dissemination via respective professional networks, and to actively push forward project implementation for practical results under the framework.
18. Field 1: Ecological Restoration
(i) Desertification Control
Giving priority to natural recovery, protecting and restoring desert vegetation through a good planning, controlling dune intrusion, and exploring best practices, appropriate measures, and technical means to combat desertification;
Protecting natural forest resources, returning farmland to forest, returning pasture to grassland, and returning farmland to lake, as well as sand source control, sand shelterbelt construction, wildlife protection, and nature reserves construction in keys areas, including decertified areas, ecologically fragile and sensitive areas, and arid and semi-arid areas;
Promoting cooperation on desert planting base construction and desert agricultural development and governance, while maintaining ecological space and strengthening ecological restoration, in order to build the ecological production system in favor of livelihoods.
(ii) Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity
Protecting the natural ecological landscape and desert biodiversity, and protecting marine ecosystems and biodiversity;
Restoring typical desert ecosystems, extending technologies and models for ecological restoration and management in mining areas, and carrying out demonstration on wetland protection, restoration, and sustainable use;
Restoring coastal mangrove ecosystems, conserving the concentrated areas of coral reefs, seagrass beds and coastal wetlands, as well as important island ecological areas, and implementing the construction of marine protected areas (MPAs);
Protection, development, and benefit sharing of traditional knowledge related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in minority areas;
Providing cross-border protection of wildlife resources and their living environment, protecting important biological species and their gene pool, and rescuing rare and endangered wild flora species and the habitats.
(iii) Water and Soil Erosion Control
Conserving water and soil and preventing soil salinization and land degradation by relying on ecological self-repair capacity combined with engineering, biological, and farming measures, so as to improve land productivity;
In areas with relative minor soil erosion, implementing forest enclosure, controlled grazing, and rotational grazing, promoting biogas, and using electricity, coal, and gas as an alternative to firewood, so as to push ahead a wide range of ecological restoration and improvement;
Carrying out comprehensive management of small watersheds, sloping land, and erosion gullies; strengthening basic farmland construction; carrying out natural restoration in barren hills and farmland-derived steep slopes or creating shrubdominated soil conservation forests; creating water conservation forests.
(iv) Wise Use of Wetlands
Strengthening the recovery and eutrophication treatment of the wetlands, alleviating the wetland degradation, and recovering the function of wetlands; consolidating the scientific research on the wetland, carrying out the technical research on the wetland conservation and restoration, and building up the pilot base of wise use of wetlands; enhancing the capacity of managing the wetlands.
19. Field 2: Environmental Protection
(i) Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution
Preventing and controlling water pollution, which includes wastewater and sewage treatment, comprehensive prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, reduction of water environmental pollutants such as chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen, and prevention and control of land-based pollutants into the sea and marine litter;
Preventing and controlling air pollution, which includes reduction of the urban atmospheric concentration of respirable particulate matters, particularly PM2.5, reduction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from industrial sectors and motor vehicles, and sandstorm prevention and control;
Preventing and controlling chemical and solid waste pollution, which includes prevention and treatment of organic pollutants, disposal of hazardous chemicals and waste, solid waste disposal and recycling, as well as e-waste recycling and pollution prevention and control;
Preventing and controlling soil pollution, which includes prevention and repair of agricultural soil pollution and remediation of industrial contaminated site.
(ii) Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
Increasing the adaptability to climate change in arid and semi-arid areas as well as ecologically fragile areas, developing innovative technologies, and cultivating forests and pastures to increase forest carbon sinks;
Exploring new models and technologies for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation according to regional characteristics, optimizing the energy mix by promoting the clean utilization of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil and the development and application of clean energy, such as photovoltaic power, wind power, biomass energy, and hydropower, and improving energy efficiency through energy efficiency labeling and low-carbon product certification;
Carrying out research, development and application of energy saving technologies, pushing ahead the test and demonstration of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), launching demonstration projects on low-carbon industrial parks, communities, and transportation, and encouraging emissions trading cooperation.
(iii) Water Resource Conservation
Carrying out integrated watershed management to protect surface water, groundwater, and drinking water resources, and guarantee ecological and domestic water supply;
Performing rational development and utilization of water resources through small and medium-sized water conservancy projects, flood control projects, and water conservation and supply projects;
Extending water-saving technologies in different industries to improve water use efficiency, promoting rain-harvesting agriculture and water-saving agriculture, and developing and applying water-saving irrigation techniques.
(iv)Strengthening Protected Area Systems
Formulating the planning of protected area system and pushing enforcement; establishing the monitoring network system of protected area system; building up the pilot base and strengthening the scientific research; and enhancing the communication and exchange of international experiences and best practices of the protected area system management.
20. Field 3: Green Growth
(i) Green Investment
Creating markets and business opportunities based on ecosystem restoration along the Belt and Road and other areas, building green investment and financing funds and networks, and particularly promoting cooperation on infrastructure, green transportation, green buildings, and eco-community;
Actively pushing forward the development of clean and renewable energy including photovoltaic power, wind power, and hydropower, and carrying out cooperation on deep-processing technologies, equipment and engineering services in the field of energy and resources;
Actively promoting green cooperation on marine aquaculture and related industries, especially in the fields of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, as well as agricultural machinery, and agricultural production and processing;
Making green investment in the environmental protection industries and sand industries, developing eco-tourism; exploring new models of investment cooperation that give play to the comparative advantages of each region and favor the cluster development of green industries and regional and corporate green growth;
Introducing innovative models of ecological protection and green growth in the context of the Internet community, thinking and techniques to realize ecological, economic, and social integration in the information age; creating new paradigms that combine ecological protection with industrial and commercial development by building a green production chain, so as to promote sustainable production and consumption.
(ii) Green Trade
Tapping and giving play to comparative advantages of green trade along the Belt and Road and elsewhere to create and build green trade circles favorable for the trade of ecological and environmental products and services;
Promoting trade of environmental facilities and products, including facilities for flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, eco-cities and urban greening, sewage and garbage disposal, waste recycling, and treatment and disposal of hazardous waste, as well as facility management, operation and maintenance services;
Facilitating trade of environmental technological services, including development of environmental technologies and products, environmental engineering design and construction, cities greening industrial service and environmental monitoring and analysis;
Cooperation on environmental consulting services, including environmental impact assessment (EIA), environmental engineering consulting, environmental supervision, environmental management system and environmental labeling, product certification, organic food certification, environmental technology assessment, life cycle assessment, cleaner production, and environmental information services;
Environmental trade and financial services, including professional marketing of environment-related products, import and export, environmental financial services, as well as environmental features and other services.
(iii) Green Jobs
Developing green economy, industries and trade, so as to improve the livelihoods of communities and residents in ecologically fragile areas, increase revenue, reduce poverty, and curb ecological degradation;
Increasing the penetration of practical technologies in ecologically extremely fragile areas according to the local conditions, so as to change the way of production and lifestyle and improve living standards of farmers and herdsmen while protecting biodiversity. Among the technologies are household biogas digester, eco-agriculture, eco-tourism, rotational grazing, artificial grassland construction, and settled and industrialized animal husbandry;
Creating more decent jobs and increasing green jobs through the development of energy-saving and environmental protection industries, low-carbon industries, and strategic emerging industries, and thereby promoting balanced and inclusive growth.
21. Field 4: Knowledge Sharing
(i) Dissemination of the Concept of Ecological Civilization and Best Practices
Collecting, summarizing and sharing knowledge and best practices related to the construction of ecological civilization, with particular emphasis on practical knowledge of civil society organizations and the business community;
Proposing the establishment of an international knowledge sharing platform and network to facilitate exchanges and cooperation in ecological civilization construction, and making use of network platforms and new media to create harmonious and friendly international ecological culture and media environment.
(ii) Enhancement of Dialogue and Exchanges
Expanding dialogues and exchanges among civil society organizations, businesses, international organizations, governments, local communities, scientists, and artists, so as to enhance understanding of and consensus on the philosophy and practice about ecological civilization, including continuous holding of the entrepreneurs annual forum for eco-civilization which was initiated by eight private sector Chinese enterprises in 2014 in China Kubuqi;
Deepening cultural exchanges in the field of ecological civilization to set more vivid examples of cooperation,and encouraging the joint research, cooperative forums and the like among international think-tanks;
Boosting cultural and academic exchanges, personnel cooperation, media cooperation, youth and women communications, and volunteer services, as well as cross generation dialogues so as to carry forward ecological civilization.
22. Field 5: Capacity Building
(i) Human Capital
Fostering leading talents committed to building an ecological civilization, so as to enhance the planning and management capacity and policy implementation capacity of partners in the fields of green growth, environmental protection, clean energy, and desertification control;
Forming an international network of human capital through various forms, including co-founding of colleges and institutes, and culturing young scientists, entrepreneurs, technicians, and green messengers in the fields of desertification control, eco-environmental protection, clean energy, and green economy etc.;
Strengthening cooperation in environmental protection education to improve the capacity of local communities in livelihoods and ecological conservation;
Integrating resources to actively open up and deepen cooperation on eco-civilization construction with special interest in youth employment, entrepreneurship training, vocational skills development, social security management services, and public administration.
(ii) Ecological Technology Innovation
Pushing forward eco-technology research, incubation, transfer, and applications, and stimulating eco-technological innovation to drive green growth and environmental protection;
Encouraging civil society organizations and social forces, especially industries and enterprises to build joint laboratories (research centers) and international technology transfer centers that facilitate personnel exchanges and cooperation on groundbreaking scientific research, in an effort to jointly enhance the technological innovation capability.
(iii) Institutional Development
Summing up policies, technologies and practices in the fields of green development, eco-environmental protection, desertification control, and clean energy, to make institutional innovation and contribution to the green growth of businesses and sustainable development of countries and regions. Such policies, technologies and practices cover ecological redlining, green corporate standards, property rights and use control of natural resources, ecological compensation, emissions trading, and carbon market.